A string is a list of characters in order.
A character is anything you can type on the keyboard in one keystroke, like a letter, a number, or a backslash.
Strings can have spaces:
An empty string is a string that has 0 characters.
Python strings are immutable
Python recognizes as strings everything that is delimited by quotation marks (” ” or ‘ ‘).
- Python Programming – String Functions and Methods
- The Odds & Ends of Python Regular Expressions
- Python Programming – String Functions
To manipulate strings, we can use some of Pythons built-in methods.
word = "Hello World" >>> print word Hello World
Use [ ] to access characters in a string
word = "Hello World" letter=word >>> print letter H
word = "Hello World" >>> len(word) 11
word = "Hello World">>> print word.count('l') # count how many times l is in the string 3 >>> print word.find("H") # find the word H in the string 0 >>> print word.index("World") # find the letters World in the string 6
s = "Count, the number of spaces" >>> print s.count(' ') 8
Use [ # : # ] to get set of letter
Keep in mind that python, as many other languages, starts to count from 0!!
word = "Hello World" print word #get one char of the word print word[0:1] #get one char of the word (same as above) print word[0:3] #get the first three char print word[:3] #get the first three char print word[-3:] #get the last three char print word[3:] #get all but the three first char print word[:-3] #get all but the three last character word = "Hello World" word[start:end] # items start through end-1 word[start:] # items start through the rest of the list word[:end] # items from the beginning through end-1 word[:] # a copy of the whole list
word = "Hello World" >>> word.split(' ') # Split on whitespace ['Hello', 'World']
Startswith / Endswith
word = "hello world" >>> word.startswith("H") True >>> word.endswith("d") True >>> word.endswith("w") False
print "."* 10 # prints ten dots >>> print "." * 10 ..........
word = "Hello World" >>> word.replace("Hello", "Goodbye") 'Goodbye World'
Changing Upper and Lower Case Strings
string = "Hello World" >>> print string.upper() HELLO WORLD >>> print string.lower() hello world >>> print string.title() Hello World >>> print string.capitalize() Hello world >>> print string.swapcase() hELLO wORLD
string = "Hello World" >>> print ' '.join(reversed(string)) d l r o W o l l e H
Python strings have the strip(), lstrip(), rstrip() methods for removing
any character from both ends of a string.
If the characters to be removed are not specified then white-space will be removed
word = "Hello World"/
Strip off newline characters from end of the string
>>> print word.strip(' ') Hello World strip() #removes from both ends lstrip() #removes leading characters (Left-strip) rstrip() #removes trailing characters (Right-strip) >>> word = " xyz " >>> print word xyz >>> print word.strip() xyz >>> print word.lstrip() xyz >>> print word.rstrip() xyz
To concatenate strings in Python use the “+” operator.
"Hello " + "World" # = "Hello World" "Hello " + "World" + "!"# = "Hello World!"
>>> print ":".join(word) # #add a : between every char H:e:l:l:o: :W:o:r:l:d >>> print " ".join(word) # add a whitespace between every char H e l l o W o r l d
A string in Python can be tested for truth value.
The return type will be in Boolean value (True or False)
word = "Hello World" word.isalnum() #check if all char are alphanumeric word.isalpha() #check if all char in the string are alphabetic word.isdigit() #test if string contains digits word.istitle() #test if string contains title words word.isupper() #test if string contains upper case word.islower() #test if string contains lower case word.isspace() #test if string contains spaces word.endswith('d') #test if string endswith a d word.startswith('H') #test if string startswith H
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