Python Programming – Python differences from other languages
The Python language has many similarities to C, C++, and Java. However, there are some definite differences between the languages.
Difference between C and Python
C and Python have extensively used programming languages. Python is mostly used as a server-side scripting language. The differences between C and Python are:
- C programming language was designed by Dennis Ritchie and was released in the year 1972, whereas Python programming language was developed by Guido van Rossum during 1986-1990, and was released in 1991.
- The latest version of the C language is Call and the latest version of Python programming is 3.6.1.
- In C language, indentation is not mandatory, however, in Python language indentation of code is a must.
- Data type declarations are required in C language, whereas in Python language data type declaration is not required.
- C language uses pointers, on the other hand, Python language does not use pointers but associative arrays and sequences are used.
- The C language coding is complex and lengthy, whereas Python language coding is easier and short.
- C language is faster as compared to Python language.
- C language type discipline is static and weak, whereas Python type discipline is duct, dynamic, and strong.
- In C language, the variable does not increment automatically in a for loop, whereas in Python the variable used in a for loop increments automatically for the next iteration.
- The implementation of stack and queue is complex using C language, however, the implementation of stack and queue is easier in Python.
- C language supports in-line assignments whereas Python does not support in-line assignments.
- C language does not support exception handling, but Python supports exception handling.
- C does not exhibit a case selection library, where Python language has a built-in case selection library.
- The semicolon is used as a statement terminator in C. However, Python uses a newline terminator, and a semicolon is used as an expression separator.
- C does not support garbage collection. A programmer takes care of memory management on his own. In C, Boehm Garbage collector can be used. However, Python supports mark-and-sweep garbage collection and non-moving with the automatic garbage collector.
- C supports single precision and double precision complex numbers. On the other hand, Python supports double-precision complex numbers.
- C language provides more safety than the of python language.
- C supports data types like char, Boolean, and enum, whereas Python supports string and Boolean, and does not support char and enum.
- C supports memory management manually through malloc ( ) and free( ) functions, whereas Python supports memory management through reference counting.
- C supports 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit, and 64-bit integer and word size, whereas Python supports arbitrarily precise bignum data types.
- C supports single and multi-dimensional arrays, on the other hand, Python supports a one-dimensional dynamic size array.
- C does not support associative arrays, whereas associative arrays are
used in the form of dictionaries and are marked with curly braces. ,
- In C strcat( ) function is used for string concatenation, whereas in Python ‘+’ symbol is used as the concatenation operator of string data structures.
Difference between C++ and Python
Both C++ and Python are general-purpose programming languages. The differences between them are:
- The C++ language paradigms are procedural, object-oriented, functional, and generic, whereas python paradigms are object-oriented, imperative, functional, reflective, and procedural.
- C++ language was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1983 and python was released in 1991.
- The current version of C++ is C++11, and the current version of python is 3.5.1.
- C++ coding requires more lines of code and therefore, it is time-consuming to write a code in C++, whereas python code is 5-10 times shorter than C++ code and hence it takes less time to develop a program in python.
- The filename extensions used C++ are .cc, .cpp, . cxx, .h, .hpp, .hxx, and .h++, whereas the filename extensions of python are . py, .pyw, .pyc, .pyo, and . pyd.
- The C++ language can be implemented in Turbo C++, Microsoft Visual C++, Intel C++, LLVM Clang. On the other hand, the python language can be implemented in CPython, pypy, IronPython, and Jython.
- Python is a safer language than C++.
- In C++ memory management is done using new and delete operators and in Python automatic memory management is done with reference counting.
- In C++ semicolon is used as statement terminator and comma as expression separator, whereas in Python newline is used as terminator and semicolon as expression separator.
- C++ supports single-precision float, double, and long double data types. On the other side, Python does not support single-precision float, double and long double instead it supports double-precision float.
- C++ supports one dimensional fixed and dynamic size array, whereas Python supports one-dimensional dynamic size array.
- It is mandatory in C++ to declare types of arguments and variables whereas in Python types of arguments and variables need not be declared.
- C++ has support for associative arrays called std::map, in Python, the associative arrays are termed as dictionaries.
- The syntax for accessing an array element in C++ language is the name[index], However, in Python, the same syntax is used. In Python, the index can be negative also. The negative number indicates the corresponding number of places before the end of the array.
Difference between Java and Python
Java is an object-oriented programming language whose applications are typically compiled to byte code, which can be supported on any Java virtual machine (JVM). A python is an object-oriented and high-level programming language. The key differences between Java and Python are:
- Java programming language was developed by James Gosling in Sun Microsystems and then acquired by Oracle Corporation and released in 1995. Python was released in 1991 by the Python software foundation.
- The latest version of Java Standard Edition is 8 and the latest version of Python is 3.6.1.
- Java language does not compile to a native bytecode instead it compiles to a Java bytecode that can be executed on any machine. On the other side, Python language compiles to a native byte code and provides the advantages of optimization.
- Java programming includes more lines of code whereas Python programs are 3 to 5 times shorter than the equivalent Java programs.
- Java takes more time to develop and therefore slower than Python.
- In Java, all variables along with their types are needed to be declared explicitly whereas no such requirement in Python.
- In Java, the data type of a variable cannot be changed whereas the data type of a variable can be changed in a Python program.
- Java is a statically typed language whereas Python is a dynamically typed language.
- Java is not a compact language whereas Python is a compact language and easier to learn than Java.
- Java uses curly braces to signify the beginning and end of the block whereas white spaces are used in Python to make the beginning and end of a block.
- Java uses an automatic garbage collector to manage memory whereas in Python garbage collection is done with reference counting and supports the mark and sweep garbage collection.
- Java container objects like vector and array lists comprise objects of
generic type. On the other side, Python container objects like lists and dictionaries can comprise objects of any type including numbers and lists.
- In Java, a string can not be assigned to a variable whereas Python. allows a string (which once holds an integer value) to be assigned to a variable.
- In Java indentation is not mandatory, whereas in Python proper indentation is automatically enforced.
- Java does not support complex numbers, whereas Python supports double-precision complex numbers.
- Java supports both fixed-sized as well as dynamically sized arrays whereas Python supports only dynamic size arrays.
- In Java statements are terminated with a semicolon whereas Python is terminated with a newline and semicolon is used as a secondary statement separator.
- Java supports signed 8-bit integer, 16-bit integer, 32-bit integer, and 64-bit integer and it does not support word size whereas Python does not support 8-bit integer, 16-bit integer, 32 bit, or 64-bit integer. Python supports word size int (signed).
- Every class in Java has to be defined in its own file, and in Python, multiple classes can be defined in a single file.